Detailed documentation on the WebAssembly binding component


With WebAssembly, you can safely run code compiled in other languages. Runtimes execute WebAssembly Modules (Wasm), which are most often binaries with a .wasm extension.

The Wasm Binding allows you to invoke a program compiled to Wasm by passing commandline args or environment variables to it, similar to how you would with a normal subprocess. For example, you can satisfy an invocation using Python, even though Dapr is written in Go and is running on a platform that doesn’t have Python installed!

The Wasm binary must be a program compiled with the WebAssembly System Interface (WASI). The binary can be a program you’ve written such as in Go, or an interpreter you use to run inlined scripts, such as Python.

Minimally, you must specify a Wasm binary compiled with the canonical WASI version wasi_snapshot_preview1 (a.k.a. wasip1), often abbreviated to wasi.

Note: If compiling in Go 1.21+, this is GOOS=wasip1 GOARCH=wasm. In TinyGo, Rust, and Zig, this is the target wasm32-wasi.

You can also re-use an existing binary. For example, Wasm Language Runtimes distributes interpreters (including PHP, Python, and Ruby) already compiled to WASI.

Wasm binaries are loaded from a URL. For example, the URL file://rewrite.wasm loads rewrite.wasm from the current directory of the process. On Kubernetes, see How to: Mount Pod volumes to the Dapr sidecar to configure a filesystem mount that can contain Wasm binaries. It is also possible to fetch the Wasm binary from a remote URL. In this case, the URL must point exactly to one Wasm binary. For example:

  • http://example.com/rewrite.wasm, or
  • https://example.com/rewrite.wasm.

Dapr uses wazero to run these binaries, because it has no dependencies. This allows use of WebAssembly with no installation process except Dapr itself.

Component format

To configure a Wasm binding, create a component of type bindings.wasm. See this guide on how to create and apply a binding configuration.

apiVersion: dapr.io/v1alpha1
kind: Component
  name: wasm
  type: bindings.wasm
  version: v1
  - name: url
    value: "file://uppercase.wasm"
  - name: direction 
    value: "output"

Spec metadata fields

Field Details Required Example
url The URL of the resource including the Wasm binary to instantiate. The supported schemes include file://, http://, and https://. The path of a file:// URL is relative to the Dapr process unless it begins with /. true file://hello.wasm, https://example.com/hello.wasm
direction The direction of the binding false "output"

Binding support

This component supports output binding with the following operations:

  • execute

Example request

The data field, if present will be the program’s STDIN. You can optionally pass metadata properties with each request:

  • args any CLI arguments, comma-separated. This excludes the program name.

For example, consider binding the url to a Ruby interpreter, such as from webassembly-language-runtimes:

apiVersion: dapr.io/v1alpha1
kind: Component
  name: wasm
  type: bindings.wasm
  version: v1
  - name: url
    value: "https://github.com/vmware-labs/webassembly-language-runtimes/releases/download/ruby%2F3.2.0%2B20230215-1349da9/ruby-3.2.0-slim.wasm"

Assuming that you wanted to start your Dapr at port 3500 with the Wasm Binding, you’d run:

$ dapr run --app-id wasm --dapr-http-port 3500 --resources-path components

The following request responds Hello "salaboy":

$ curl -X POST http://localhost:3500/v1.0/bindings/wasm -d'
  "operation": "execute",
  "metadata": {
    "args": "-ne,print \"Hello \"; print"
  "data": "salaboy"

Last modified September 28, 2023: Jaeger otlp updates (#3771) (7ed281a)